Proceedings of the 28th International Academic Conference, Tel Aviv




Nearly hundred years (1783-1878) lasted the process of integration of the Caucasus into Russia. Territory of the Caucasus was officially called the Caucasus region or Krai (Caucasus region was divided into the Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia), with its center in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia). The Head of the Caucasus region was Viceroy (1844-1882, 1905-1917), in 1882-1905 - Vicegerent (namestnik) of civil part of the Caucasus. A third of Caucasian population represented Muslims, who tried to preserve their religious identity. They abstained from gaining an education at the state schools and restrained themselves only with a religious education. The Russian administration decided to take under its control an education for Muslims. The Viceroy of the Caucasus Mikhail Vorontsov (1844-1854) launched an initiative to establish Muslim schools, that would be state-approved education in Russian for Muslims. In 1847-1849 two schools were opened in Tiflis – for Sunni (Muslim school of the Teachings of Umar) and for Shia Muslims (Muslim school for Aliev sect) where Russian language, arithmetic, history and geography were also taught. After 2 years more 6 schools were opened: two of them for Sunni in Derbend and Shemakha and for Shia Muslims in Baku, Shemakha, Shusha and Elizavetpol. In 1853 separate Caucasian Education District was created and subordinated to the Ministry of Education of Russian Empire along with the other districts. At that time there were 1917 Muslim schools (25742 pupils) in the Caucasian Education District. However, in Georgia only from 1882 the activity of the Muslim community began to open schools for Muslim girls. In the previous work, a history of Muslim women education and first schools in Tiflis will be discussed based on Georgian archives (Caucasus Islamic society in Georgian archives 1800-1917) relative to Caucasian Muslim community and protected materials in the periodical press.

Keywords: Transcaucasia; Tiflis; Muslim women; education; school

DOI: 10.20472/IAC.2017.028.004

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